We develop a methodology to elicit beliefs (first-order) and beliefs about beliefs (second-order) about the differences between any two populations in any measurable trait. We apply this methodology to elicit first- and second-order beliefs about the performance of men and women on a timed math task and an abstract bargaining task. We find no evidence that men’s and women’s first-order beliefs differ for either task. However, both men and women believe that men (and not women) believe that men out-perform women on the math task. For the bargaining task, there is no such disparity.
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